Cross-Sectional Assessment of Factors Related to Pain Intensity and Pain Interference in Lower Limb Prosthesis Users.

TitleCross-Sectional Assessment of Factors Related to Pain Intensity and Pain Interference in Lower Limb Prosthesis Users.
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2017
AuthorsMorgan SJ, Friedly JL, Amtmann D, Salem R, Hafner BJ
JournalArch Phys Med Rehabil
Date Published2017 Jan
KeywordsAdolescent, Adult, Aged, Amputation, Amputation Stumps, Arthralgia, Artificial Limbs, Back Pain, Cross-Sectional Studies, Female, Humans, Knee Joint, Leg, Male, Middle Aged, Pain, Pain Measurement, Pain Perception, Phantom Limb, Risk Factors, Shoulder Pain, Surveys and Questionnaires, Young Adult

OBJECTIVE: To determine relationships between pain sites and pain intensity/interference in people with lower limb amputations (LLAs).
DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey.
SETTING: Community.
PARTICIPANTS: Lower limb prosthesis users with unilateral or bilateral amputations (N=1296; mean time since amputation, 14.1y).
INTERVENTIONS: Not applicable.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) pain intensity (1 item to assess average pain), PROMIS pain interference (4-item short form to assess the consequences of pain in desired activities), and questions that asked participants to rate the extent to which each of the following were a problem: residual limb pain (RLP), phantom limb pain (PLP), knee pain on the nonamputated side, back pain, and shoulder pain.
RESULTS: Nearly three quarters (72.1%) of participants reported problematic pain in 1 or more of the listed sites. Problematic PLP, back pain, and RLP were reported by 48.1%, 39.2%, and 35.1% of participants, respectively. Knee pain and shoulder pain were less commonly identified as problems (27.9% and 21.7%, respectively). Participants also reported significantly (P<.0001) higher pain interference (T-score ± SD, 54.7±9.0) than the normative sample based on the U.S. population (T-score ± SD, 50.0±10.0). Participants with LLAs rated their pain intensity on average ± SD at 3.3±2.4 on a 0-to-10 scale. Pain interference (ρ=.564, P<.0001) and intensity (ρ=.603, P<.0001) were positively and significantly correlated with number of pain sites reported.
CONCLUSIONS: Problematic pain symptoms, especially RLP, PLP, and back pain, affect most prosthetic limb users and have the potential to greatly restrict participation in life activities.

Alternate JournalArch Phys Med Rehabil
PubMed ID27742450
PubMed Central IDPMC5183499
Grant ListR01 HD065340 / HD / NICHD NIH HHS / United States
U01 HD065340 / HD / NICHD NIH HHS / United States